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Chapter 12

Strategies for Ending Female Genital Mutilation and Footbinding: Western Cultural Imperialism or Women’s Human Rights?

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Related Maps and Photos



Map of Egypt

Egypt is located in Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula.



Map of Sudan

Sudan is located in Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea.



Map of Ghana

Ghana is located in Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoireand Togo.

*Note: Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.


Federal Statute Banning FGM ,

Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1995, Sec. 645, Pub. L. 104-208, sec. 645, 110 Stat. 3009-546, at 708-709 (1996), codified at 18 U.S.C. 116.

United States Code PDF

*Begins on p. 709.


Other Developments


For a critical view of Western attitudes toward FGM and the anti-FGM movement, please see:

Global Jurist- Female Circumcision as Female Genital Mutilation: Human Rights or Criminal Imperialism?




Uganda to Outlaw Female Circumcision

Safa-AFP, "Uganda to outlaw female circumcision," Mail and Guardian Online, July 3, 2009.

Mail and Guardian Online  

On July 3, 2009, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni announced that Uganda "will pass a law banning female genital mutilation," which is rampant among the tribes in the eastern region of Uganda, stating that "The way God made it, there is no part of a human body that is useless . . . [y]ou people interfere with God's work. Some say it is culture. Yes, I support culture but you must support culture that is useful and based on scientific information." On 10/16/2009, the bill that would have subjected a person convicted of aggravated FGM to life in prison was tabled by Kinkiizi East MP Dr. Chris Bayromunsi. For more information, click here.


Ugandan Parliament Outlaws Female Genital Mutilation

Nisha C., "Ugandan Parliament Outlaws Female Genital Mutilation," Care2 Make a Difference, December 21, 2009.




Kenya Prohibits FGM:


The Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act, 2011

No. 32 of 2011, Date of Commencement Oct. 4th, 2011.

kenyalaw.org PDF


Outlawed Female Genital Mutiliation Persists in Kenya

Rachel Muthoni, "Outlawed Female Genital Mutilation Persists in Kenya," The Whip, September 19, 2011.



Kenya Imams Fight Female Circumcision

OnIslam & News Agencies, "Kenya Imams Fight Female Circumcision," OnIslam, October 13, 2011.



The Cruelest Cut: Kenya Bans Female Genital Mutilation

Judy M., "The Cruelest Cut: Kenya Bans Female Genital Mutilation, Care2 Make a Difference, September 29, 2011.