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Chapter 3

The Interrelationship of the ICCPR and the ICESCR; and The Human Rights Committee’s

Evolving Equal Protection Doctrine

On This Page

Introduction to the Chapter

Chapter 3 introduces the two covenants that make up the UN Bill of Rights- the ICCPR

and the ICESCR. The case law that interprets them shows how the two covenants are

interrelated, and then the chapter also introduces the views of the HRC on equal protection

in several situations where statutes explicitly treat men and women differently.

 

Documents from the Chapter

Each document has its own box.  The box contains, on the top bold line, the name of the document. 

This is followed by the legal citation (not in bold).  Under these lines, the box contains one or

more sources for opening the document.  In the left-hand column (“HTML”or “PDF”), the reader

can access the official document copy, hosted on RossRights.  This permits rapid access to the

document.  In the right-hand column (“External Link”), the reader can access the same document

on an official website.  This link will often take more time to appear than the PDF or HTML copy, but

should be used for official legal citations. Asterisks accompany links where additional steps to reach the document are required.

For all United Nations Treaties, the source marked "Original" contains the UN General Assembly

Resolution (G.A. res.) adopting the relevant treaty, which is found in the "Annex" following the

Resolution.  The source marked "UN High Comm'r for Human Rights" contains the relevant treaty,

without the G.A. res.

When a link requires searching for a symbol (such as "A/44/40"), follow the link, click on the

Simple Search button to access the search engine, then type the symbol into the "Symbol" field

and click "Search."

 

Key:
Map AvailableMap(s) Available
Photo AvailablePhoto(s) Available

 

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR),

G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force Mar. 23, 1976.
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

*Scroll to and click on 2200(XXI).

ICCPR (Optional Protocol),

G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N.GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, 59, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force Mar. 23, 1976.

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR),

G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N.GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force Jan. 3, 1976.
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

*Scroll to and click on 2200(XXI).

 

Optional Protocol to ICESCR,

U.N. Doc. A/RES/63/117 (2008), entered into force May 5, 2013.
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF External Link  

 

 

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW),

G.A. res. 34/180, 34 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 193, U.N. Doc. A/34/46, entered into force Sept. 3, 1981.
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

Cases

 

Broeks v. The Netherlands,

Communication No. 172/1984, UN Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/42/40) at 139 (1987).

Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

*The case begins on p. 145 (p. 139 of the original).

 


The Netherlands Map

The Netherlands is located in Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and

Germany.

       Moroccans, Antilleans, Surinamese, and Indonesians) (1999 est.)

       other 2.5%, none 41% (2002)

 

Vos v. The Netherlands,

Communication No. 218/1986, UN Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/44/40) at 232 (1989).

Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

*The case begins on p. 237 (p. 232 of the original).

 

Ponsamy Poongavanam v. Mauritius,

Communication No. 567/1993, UN Doc. CCPR/C/51/D/567/1993 (1993).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

Map of Mauritius

Mauritius is an island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar. It was once the only home of

the now extinct dodo bird.

Mauritius Detail Map

Mauritius is only 2040 km2 (788 mi2).

       other 2.5%, unspecified 0.3%, none 0.4% (2000 census)

 

J.H.W. v. The Netherlands,

Communication No. 501/1992, UN Doc. CCPR/C/48/D/501/1992 (1993).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

CESCR General Comments

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library External Link
Bayefsky.com External Link

 

States Reports to the CESCR

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
Bayefsky.com External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports.

 

CESCR Concluding Observations

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library External Link
Bayefsky.com External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the Concluding Oberservations.

 

Human Rights Committee (CCPR) General Comments

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
Bayefsky.com External Link

 

(CCPR) General Comment 18

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link*

* Click on the PDF icon for English to download

 

(CCPR) General Comment 28

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link*

* Click on the PDF icon for English to download

 

States Reports to the HRC (CCPR)

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
Bayefsky.com External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports.

 

HRC (CCPR) Concluding Observations

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
Bayefsky.com External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports.

CEDAW Committee General Recommendations

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

^Recommended.

States Reports to the CEDAW Committee

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

^Recommended.

CEDAW Committee Concluding Observations

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

^Recommended

 

 

Additional Maps and Photos

The Philippines Map

The Philippines is an archipelago in Southeastern Asia between the Philippine Sea and the

South China Sea, east of Vietnam.

       Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

       Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)