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Each document has its own box.  The box contains, on the top bold line, the name of the document.  This is followed by the legal citation (not in bold).  Under these lines, the box contains one or more sources for opening the document.  In the left-hand column (“HTML”or “PDF”), the reader can access the official document copy, hosted on RossRights.  This permits rapid access to the document.  In the right-hand column (“External Link”), the reader can access the same document on an official website.  This link will often take more time to appear than the PDF or HTML copy, but should be used for official legal citations. Where there is an asterisk (*) in the box, it indicates that there is an explanatory footnote directly below the box, which tells the reader how to access/locate the document.

For all United Nations Treaties, the source marked "Original" contains the UN General Assembly Resolution (G.A. res.) adopting the relevant treaty, which is found in the "Annex" following the Resolution.  The source marked "UN High Comm'r for Human Rights" contains the relevant treaty, without the G.A. res. When following a link that requires searching for a symbol, there are several preliminary steps: first, copy the listed symbol and click the link, second; select a language; third, clicking the "Simple Search" button; and fourth, paste the symbol into the "Symbol" blank and click the "Search" button.

International Treaties & Documents

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,

G.A. res. 34/180, 34 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 193, U.N. Doc. A/34/46, entered into force Sept. 3, 1981.
Original PDF*
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

*Scroll to the bottom of the first page, document begins in right column.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,

U.N. Doc. A/RES/54/4 (1999), 2131 U.N.T.S. 83, entered into force Dec. 22, 2000.

Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women,

G.A. res. 48/104, 48 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 217, U.N. Doc. A/48/49 (1993).
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Recommendation on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages,

G.A. res. 2018 (XX), 20 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 14) at 36, U.N. Doc. A/60141 (1965).
Original PDF^
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

^Document begins halfway down first page in left column.

 

Feasibility Study for a Convention Against Domestic Violence

 

European Committee on Crime Problems PDF

 

 

Universal Declaration of Human Rights,

G.A. res. 217A (III), U.N. Doc A/810 at 71 (1948).
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,

G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force Mar. 23, 1976.
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,

G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N.GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, 59, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force Mar. 23, 1976.
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,

G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N.GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force Jan. 3, 1976.
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,

U.N. Doc. A/RES/63/117 (2008), entered into force May 5, 2013.
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

 

Convention on the Rights of the Child,

G.A. res. 44/25, annex, 44 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 167, U.N. Doc. A/44/49 (1989), entered into force Sept. 2 1990.
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief,

G.A. res. 36/55, 36 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 171, U.N. Doc. A/36/684 (1981).
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,

G.A. res. 39/46, [annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984)], entered into force June 26, 1987.
Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Slavery, Servitude, Forced Labour and Similar Institutions and Practices Convention of 1926 (Slavery Convention of 1926),

60 L.N.T.S. 253, entered into force March 9, 1927.

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Protocol Amending the Slavery Convention,

182 U.N.T.S. 51, entered into force December 7, 1953.
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices
Similar to Slavery,

226 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force April 30, 1957.
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Charter of the United Nations,

June 26, 1945, 59 Stat. 1031, T.S. 993, 3 Bevans 1153, entered into force Oct. 24, 1945.

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Statute of the International Court of Justice,

3 Bevans 1179; 59 Stat. 1031; T.S. 993; 39 AJIL Supp. 215 (1945).

International Court of Justice HTML

 

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties,

1155 U.N.T.S. 331, 8 I.L.M. 679, entered into force Jan. 27, 1980.

United Nations PDF

 

Treaty Reference Guide

U.N. Treaty Collection

United Nations  

 

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) General Recommendations

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library External Link
Bayefsky.com External Link

 

CEDAW States Reports to U.N. Treaty Bodies

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports.

^Recommended.

 

CEDAW Concluding Observations by U.N. Treaty Bodies

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library** External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports. Note: Website is currently incomplete, listing only the most recent sessions.

^Recommended.

Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (CESCR) General Comments

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library External Link
Bayefsky.com External Link

 

CESCR States Reports to U.N. Treaty Bodies

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports. Note: Website is currently incomplete, listing only the most recent sessions.

^Recommended.

CESCR Concluding Observations by U.N. Treaty Bodies

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library** External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports. Note: Website is currently incomplete, listing only the most recent sessions.

^Recommended.

Human Rights Committee General Comments

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

 

Human Rights Committee States Reports

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports. Note: Website is currently incomplete, listing only the most recent sessions.

^Recommended.

Human Rights Committee Concluding Observations

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights* External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

*Select the session and follow the links to the states reports. Note: Website is currently incomplete, listing only the most recent sessions.

^Recommended.

 

International Labour Organization

C4 Night Work (Women)Convention of 1919 (Shelved)
International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

C41 Night Work (Women)Convention of 1934 (Shelved)
International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

C89 Night Work (Women)Convention of 1948 (Revised)
International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

P89 Protocol of 1990 to the Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised)
International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

C100 Equal Renumeration Convention

International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

C111 Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention

362 U.N.T.S. 31, entered into force June 15, 1960.
International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

C156 Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention

International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

C171 Night Work Convention
International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

C183 Maternity Protection Convention

International Labour Organization (NORMLEX) HTML

 

CEDAW Committee Documents

General Recommendations

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation 19, Violence against women (Eleventh session, 1992),

U.N. Doc. A/47/38 at 1 (1993), reprinted in Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.6 at 243 (2003).

United Nations (Compilation) PDF

 

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, General Recommendation 21, Equality in marriage and family relations (Thirteenth session, 1992),

U.N. Doc. A/49/38 at 1 (1994), reprinted in Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.6 at 250 (2003).

United Nations (Compilation) PDF

 

CEDAW General Recommendation 26- Rights of Women Migrant Workers

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights PDF

 

State Reports to CEDAW Committee and its Concluding Observations

 

Arab Republic of Egypt, First Periodic Report, CEDAW Committee,

U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/5/Add.10 & Amend.1 (1983).
RossRights

PDF

PDF

 

CEDAW Committee, Summary Record of the 34th and 39th meetings: Egypt (1984),

U.N. Doc. ST/CSDHA/5, pp. 254-61, 405-11 (1989).
RossRights

PDF*

*Note: Scroll to paragraph 81 at page 254 (continuing through paragraph 235 at page 261) and then to the unnumbered last paragraph on page 405 (continuing through page 411)

 

Arab Republic of Egypt, Second Periodic Report, CEDAW Committee,

U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/13/Add.2 & Amend.1 (1989).
RossRights

PDF

PDF

 

CEDAW [Committee], Summary Record of the 164th and 165th meetings: Egypt's Second Report (1990),

U.N. Doc. A/39/45, paras. 181-235 (1984).
RossRights

PDF

 

Arab Republic of Egypt, Third Periodic Report, CEDAW Committee,

U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/EGY/3 (1996).
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

Arab Republic of Egypt, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Reports, CEDAW Committee,

U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/EGY/4-5 (2000).
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights PDF

 

CEDAW [Committee], Summary Record of the 492nd and 493rd meetings: Egypt's Third, Fourth, and Fifth Reports,

U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/SR.492 & 493 (2001).
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights

PDF

PDF

 

CEDAW [Committee], Concluding Observations:  Egypt (2001).

U.N. Doc. A/56/38, paras.312-358 (2001).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

CEDAW [Committee] Documents

CEDAW [Committee] Rules for Complaints Procedure
United Nations  

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights

 

^Only includes Section III.

*Scroll down to Section III for the rules relating to the Complaints Procedure.

Human Rights Committee General Comments

 

Human Rights Committee - All General Comments

U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights External Link
Bayefsky.com^ External Link

 

Human Rights Committee, General Comment 18, Non-discrimination (Thirty-seventh session, 1989),

Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 at 26 (1994).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

Human Rights Committee, General Comment 19, Rights of the Family (Thirty-ninth session, 1990),

Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 at 28 (1994).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

Human Rights Committee, General Comment 22, The right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion (article 18),

U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.4 (1993).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

Human Rights Committee, General Comment 28, Equality of rights between men and women (article 3),

U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.10 (2000).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

Human Rights Committee, General Comment 31, Nature of the General Legal Obligation on States Parties to the Covenant,

U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13 (2004).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

Regional Treaties

African

African (Banjul) Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights,

adopted June 27, 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force Oct. 21, 1986.
African Union PDF

 

Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa,

Adopted by the 2nd Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the Union, Maputo, CAB/LEG/66.6 (Sept. 13, 2000); reprinted in 1 Afr. Hum. Rts. L.J. 40, entered into force Nov. 25, 2005.

African Union PDF
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights HTML

 

Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Establishment of an African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights,

adopted June 27, 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982), entered into force Oct. 21, 1986.
African Union PDF
African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights HTML

 

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child,

OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/24.9/49 (1990), entered into force Nov. 29, 1999.
African Union PDF

 

 

 

American

American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man,

O.A.S. Res. XXX, reprinted in Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System, OAS/Ser.L/V/I.4 Rev. 9 (2003); 43 AJIL Supp. 133 (1949).

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights HTML

 

American Convention on Human Rights,

O.A.S.Treaty Series No. 36, 1144 U.N.T.S. 123, entered into force July 18, 1978, reprinted in Basic Documents Pertaining to Human Rights in the Inter-American System, OEA/Ser.L.V/II.82 doc.6 rev.1 at 25 (1992).

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights HTML
Organization of American States Office of International Law HTML

 

Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women,

33 I.L.M. 1534 (1994), entered into force March 5, 1995.

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights HTML
Organization of American States Office of International Law HTML

 

European

1976 Equal Treatment Directive
Europa EUR-Lex HTML

 

2002 Directive amending 1976 Equal Treatment Directive
Europa EUR-Lex PDF

 

2006 Directive Amending 1976 Equal Treatment Directive
Europa EUR-Lex  

 

Article 249 of the Maastricht Treaty

Europa EUR-Lex

 

European Economic Community (EEC)Regulations, Directives and Recommendations: Their legal character and how they work,

Ingeborg Heide, Gender Roles and Sex Equality 18-20, International Labour Office (2004).

Gender Roles and Sex Equality

 

[European] Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms,

(ETS 5), 213 U.N.T.S. 222 entered into force Sept. 3, 1953, as amended by Protocols 2 (ETS 44), 3 (ETS 45), 5 (ETS 55), 8 (ETS 118), and 11 (ETS 155) which entered into force May 18, 1954, Sept. 21, 1970, Dec. 20, 1971, Jan. 1, 1990, and May 11, 1994, respectively.
Official Council of Europe Website HTML*
European Court of Human Rights PDF

*Links to Protocols 1 (listed as "Protocol"), 4, 6, 7, 12, and 13 are located under the introduction on the right side of the page.

For the original version of the European Convention and relevant protocols at the University of Minnesota's Human Rights Library, click on the appropriate link below:

 

Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) (1957) ("Treaty of Rome"),

Europa EUR-Lex PDF

 

Treaty on European Union (EU) (1992) ("Maastricht Treaty") (renaming EEC the "European Community" (EC)) (1992),

Europa EUR-Lex HTML

 

Amsterdam Treaty (amending Maastricht Treaty and renumbering the EC and EU Treaties) (1997),

Europa EUR-Lex HTML

 

Treaty of Nice (Enlarging the EU to 25 countries) (2001),

Europa EUR-Lex HTML

 

Report on Admissibilty of Jessica Gonzales and Others v. United States,

Jessica Gonzales and Others v. United States, Petition 1490-05, Inter-Am C.H.R, Report No. 52/7, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.07 (2007).

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights PDF External Link

 

Human Rights Documents

NGO Human Rights Reports

Physicians for Human Rights, The Taliban’s War on Women: A Health and Human Rights Crisis in Afghanistan (1998).
Physicians for Human Rights PDF

 

Global Jurist- Female Circumcision as Female Genital Mutilation: Human Rights or Cultural Imperialism.

Berkeley Electronic Press

 

Human Rights Watch, Honoring the Killers:  Justice Denied for “Honor” Crimes in Jordan.

Human Rights Watch PDF

 

Human Rights Watch, Violence Against Women in Brazil.

Human Rights Watch PDF

 

Human Rights Watch, Divorced from Justice: Women's Unequal Access to Divorce in Egypt.

Human Rights Watch

License: Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States.

 

Amnesty International, Pakistan:  Violence Against Women in the Name of Honour.

Amnesty International USA PDF

 

Amnesty International, Pakistan:  Insufficient Protection of Women.

Amnesty International USA PDF

 

Cases

U.N. CEDAW Committee

U.N. Human Rights Committee

International Court of Justice

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

European Court of Human Rights

European Court of Justice

United States

Botswana

India

United Kingdom

Uganda

U.N. CEDAW Committee

A.S. v. Hungary,

U. N. Doc. CEDAW/C/36/D/4/2004 (2006).

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women PDF

 

Ms. A. T. v. Hungary,

U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/32/D/2/2003 (2005)

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women HTML

 

Report on Mexico produced by the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women under article 8 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention, and reply from the Government of Mexico

U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/2005/Op.8/Mexico (2005)

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women  

U.N. Human Rights Committee

Ato del Avellanal v. Peru,

Communication No. 202/1986 (28 October 1988), U.N. Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/44/40) at 196 (1988).

Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

*Search for symbol "A/44/40". Case begins on p. 201 of PDF file (p. 196 of original document).

Shirin Aumeeruddy-Cziffra and 19 other Mauritian Women v. Mauritius,

Communication No. 35/1978 (9 April 1981), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/OP/1 at 67 (1984).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

Broeks v. The Netherlands,

Communication No. 172/1984, UN Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/42/40) at 139 (1987).

Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

*Search for "A/42/40" and follow the last link on the page. The case begins on p. 145 (p. 139 of the original).

 

Vos v. The Netherlands,

Communication No. 218/1986, UN Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/44/40) at 232 (1989).

Original PDF
UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

*Search for "A/44/40" and follow the first link on the page. The case begins on p. 237 (p. 232 of the original).

 

Ponsamy Poongavanam v. Mauritius,

Communication No. 567/1993, UN Doc. CCPR/C/51/D/567/1993 (1993).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

J.H.W. v. The Netherlands,

Communication No. 501/1992, UN Doc. CCPR/C/48/D/501/1992 (1993).

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

Delgado-Paéz v. Colombia,

Case No. 195/1985 (1990), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/39/D/195/1985.

UN High Comm'r for Human Rights HTML

 

Huamán v. Peru,

Communication No. 1153/2003, UN Doc. CCPR/C/85/D/1153/2003 (2005).

Original PDF

*Search for "CCPR/C/85/D/1153/2003" and follow the link. This document may be temporarily unavailable.

 

International Court of Justice

Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) Notwithstanding Security Resolution 276,

1971 I.C.J. 16, 56-57 (1970).

International Court of Justice PDF

 

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Proposed Amendments to the Naturalization Provisions of the Constitution of Costa Rica,

Advisory Opinion OC-4/84, January 19, 1984, Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (Ser. A) No. 4 (1984).

Inter-American Court of Human Rights PDF

 

Velasquez Rodriquez Case,

Judgment of July 29, 1988, Inter-Am. Ct. H.R. (Ser. C) No. 4 (1988).

Inter-American Court of Human Rights PDF

 

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

 

Maria Elena Loayza-Tamayo v. Peru,

Inter-Am Ct. H.R. Ser.C/33 (Sept. 17, 1997).
Inter-American Court on Human Rights

 

Maria da Penha v. Brazil,

Case 12.051, Inter-Am. C.H.R., Report No. 54/01, Annual Report 2000, OEA/Ser.L./V/II.222 doc.20 rev. (2000).

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights

 

Report on Admissibilty of Jessica Gonzales and Others v. United States,

Jessica Gonzales and Others v. United States, Petition 1490-05, Inter-Am C.H.R, Report No. 52/7, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.07 (2007).

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights PDF External Link

 

White v. United States,

Case 2141, Inter-Am. C.H.R., Resolution 23/81, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.54, Doc. 9 rev. 1 (1981).

Inter-American Commission on Human Rights HTML

 

European Court of Human Rights

 

Abdulaziz, Cabales and Balkandali v. United Kingdom,

7 Eur. H.R. Rep. 471 (1985).

European Court of Human Rights HTML

*Search for "Abdulaziz"

 

Airey v. Ireland,

2 Eur. H.R. Rep. 305 (1979).

European Court of Human Rights HTML

*Search for "Airey".

 

Schmidt v. Germany,
18 Eur. H.R. Rep. 513 (1994).

European Court of Human Rights HTML

*Search for "Schmidt".

 

Burghartz v. Switzerland,
18 Eur. H.R. Rep. 101 (1994).

European Court of Human Rights HTML

*Search for "Burghartz".

 

Gubernat v. Deremer,

657 A.2d 856 (NJ 1995).

N.J. Supreme Court PDF

*Slip Opinion

 

Opuz v. Turkey ,

Petition No. 33401/02, (June 9, 2009) available at http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int/tkp917/search.asp?skin=hudoc-en .

European Court of Human Rights HTML

 

Sahin v. Turkey,
Application No. 44774/98 (2005).

European Court of Human Rights HTML

 

Vo v. France,
40 Eur. H.R. Rep. 259 (2004).

European Court of Human Rights HTML

*Search for "Vo v. France.".

 

European Court of Justice

(Court of Justice of the European Communities)

Commission of the European Communities v. United Kingdom,
Case 165/82, 1983 E.C.R. 3431 (1983).

European Court of Justice HTML

 

Johnston v. Chief Constable,
Case 222/84, 1986 E.C.R. 1651, 1676-1689 (1986).

European Court of Justice HTML

 

Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) v. Kreil,
Case 285/98, 2001 E.C.R. I-69 (2000).

European Court of Justice - Judgment HTML

 

Public Ministry  v. Stoeckel,
Case 345/89, 1991 E.C.R. I-4047 (1991).

European Court of Justice (Judgment) HTML
European Court of Justice (Opinion of the Advocate General to the court) HTML

 

Commission of the European Communities v. Italian Republic,
Case 163/82, 1983 E.C.R. 3273 (1983).

European Court of Justice HTML

 

Hofmann v. Barmer Ersatzkasse,
Case 184/83, 1984 E.C.R. 3047 (1984).

European Court of Justice HTML

 

Commission of the European Communities v. France,
Case 312/86, 1988 E.C.R. 6315 (1988).

European Court of Justice HTML

 

 

United States

Asakura v. City of Seattle,

265 U.S. 332 (1924).

United States Reports PDF

*Note: This case was not readily available in a public domain format. This link leads to a commercial website source, which must be treated as copyrighted. The version hosted by RossRights ("HTML") is set up to avoid copyright issues.

E.E.O.C. v. Fremont Christian School,

781 F.2d 1362 (9th Cir. 1986).

RossRights/Justia HTML

* Justia is a copyrighted source of data, and all applicable copyright laws are in force regarding the layout and formatting of Justia's site, though the words of the opinion are in the public domain.

 

Gonzales v. Carhart,

550 U. S. 124 (2007) (slip opinion).

United States Reports PDF

 

Gubernat v. Deremer,

657 A.2d 856 (NJ 1995).

N.J. Supreme Court PDF*

*PDF generated from court document. Pagination may be off.

Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs,

538 U.S. 721 (2003).

United States Reports PDF

 

 

Nguyen v. INS,

533 U.S. 53 (2001).

United States Reports/Cornell University PDF

 

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania et al v. Casey,

505 U.S. 833 (1992).

United States Reports PDF

 

Reynolds v. United States,

98 U.S. 145 (1878).

United States Reports HTML

 

Roe v. Wade,

410 U.S. 113 (1973).

United States Reports HTML

 

Rosenfeld v. Southern Pacific Co.,

444 F.2d 1219 (9th Cir. 1971).

RossRights HTML

 

Town of Castle Rock, Colorado v. Gonzales,

545 U.S. 748 (2000).

United States Reports PDF External Link

 

United States v. Virginia Military Institute,

518 U.S. 515 (1996).

United States Reports PDF

 

Botswana

Attorney General v. Unity Dow,

[1992] LRC (Const) 628 (1992). (Appeal Court of Botswana)

RossRights HTML

 

India

Vishaka v. Rajasthan,

[1997] 3 LRC 361(1997).

Supreme Court of India HTML

 

 

United Kingdom

R (on the application of Begum) v. Headteacher and Governors of Denbigh High School,

[2006] UKHL 15.

Appellate Comm'te, The Lords of Appeal PDF

 

Uganda

Law and Advocacy for Women in Uganda (LAWA) v. Attorney General,

Const. Pets. Nos. 13/05 & 05/06, [2007] UGCC 1 (5 April 2007).

Appellate Comm'te, The Lords of Appeal HTML

 

Uganda Ass'n of Women Lawyers v. Attorney General,

Const. Pet. No. 2/03, (10 Mar 2004).

Constitutional Courts of Uganda PDF