Volume 111

Senior Articles Editor

Jabari Benjamin

Executive Articles Editors

Jonathan Gerstell
Julia L. Gould
Maya Kliger
Anny Yang

Articles Editors

Matthew Calabrese
Aaron W. Cheese
Mayeesha Galiba
Henry Graney
Mariaeugenia Gurdian
David A. Mahoney
Elliott P. O’Brien
Kyle I. Thetford

Senior Development Editor

Rebecca X. DiPietro

Senior Communications & Technology Editor

Maura Friedlander

Senior Diversity & Inclusion Editor

Precious L. Penny

Editor-in-Chief

Maya Devi Gandhi

Managing Editors

Radiance Jeanette Campbell
David Offit

Executive Editors

Jonathan Dame
Annie Dang
Melanie N. Fineman
Kyle J. Finnegan
Monica Kofron
Guillermo J. Martínez
Lafayette Matthews
Hannah Merrill
Kelly M. Yahner
Claire Yang

Senior Administrative Editor

Darya Tahan

Executive Administrative Editor

Caroline A. Sprague

Senior Online Editor

Johanna Mintz

Executive Online Editors for Content

Nikko Martins
Rachel Schwab
Nicholas Townsend

Executive Online Editors

Patrick A. Madden
Torrell E. Mills
Maggie Zijing Xu
Steven Yaffe

Senior Notes Editor

Madeline Emmett

Executive Notes Editors

Kristen Green
Alexander Hammer
Eleanor Slota

Notes Editors

Jacob Morton
Mckenzie Whalen

ARCP Editor-in-Chief

Sara Neier

ARCP Managing Editors

Elizabeth Butscher
Hanson S. Causbie

ARCP Executive Editors

Nathaniel S. Burkes
Sally Woojung Jo
Juliet May Tracy
Grace Amara Okoroafor
Allison Reading
Pedro J. Rosario Cintrón
Jeffrey Talley
Eric Tarosky
James Townsend
Daniel Whittam

Staff

Ellie Bacon
Nicole D. Ballister
Eric Richard Blosser
Mary Borchers
Lexi R. F. Boynes
Rebecca S. Brett
Josh Cape
Alexis Renee Casanas
Evan Chiacchiaro
Elijah C. Conley
Mary Conley
Noah B. Curtiss
Ben Dolder
Simone Edwards
Garett Eldred
Aaron W. Frazee
Grace H. Garver
Grace Gill
Creigh Greensmith
Naman Gupta
Leah Haynes
Jordan E. Jackson
Emily Nicole Janikowski
Elle A. Jimenez
Mariah Johson
Nghia Jones
Ariel Arnetta June
Ava Kamb
Eli Lee
Iland Leigh
Kamm G Lemay
Kachun Leung
Si Yuan Lin
Isabelle Long
Joseph J. Lorusso III
Alexis Marvel
Margaret A. McCallister
Ender McDuff
Nicolaus J. Neser
Sara Nutter
Conor S. O'Shea
Jon-Mark Overvold
Anna E.B. Primosch
Samantha Purdy
Tate Rosenblatt
Emma A. Schaechter-Santander
Johanna Seale
Shiva M. Sethi
Alexis Jori Shanes
Claire E. Shennan
Lucas A. Tanaka
Max Van Zile
Dustin Vesey
Abby West
Montserrat Zamora
Tinesha Zandamela
Katharine Zeigler
Zarah Zhao
Snow Yingzhu Zheng

Senior Articles Editor

Jabari Benjamin

Executive Articles Editors

Jonathan Gerstell
Julia L. Gould
Maya Kliger
Anny Yang

Articles Editors

Matthew Calabrese
Aaron W. Cheese
Mayeesha Galiba
Henry Graney
Mariaeugenia Gurdian
David A. Mahoney
Elliott P. O’Brien
Kyle I. Thetford

Senior Development Editor

Rebecca X. DiPietro

Senior Communications & Technology Editor

Maura Friedlander

Senior Diversity & Inclusion Editor

Precious L. Penny

Editor-in-Chief

Maya Devi Gandhi

Managing Editors

Radiance Jeanette Campbell
David Offit

Executive Editors

Jonathan Dame
Annie Dang
Melanie N. Fineman
Kyle J. Finnegan
Monica Kofron
Guillermo J. Martínez
Lafayette Matthews
Hannah Merrill
Kelly M. Yahner
Claire Yang

Senior Administrative Editor

Darya Tahan

Executive Administrative Editor

Caroline A. Sprague

Senior Online Editor

Johanna Mintz

Executive Online Editors for Content

Nikko Martins
Rachel Schwab
Nicholas Townsend

Executive Online Editors

Patrick A. Madden
Torrell E. Mills
Maggie Zijing Xu
Steven Yaffe

Senior Notes Editor

Madeline Emmett

Executive Notes Editors

Kristen Green
Alexander Hammer
Eleanor Slota

Notes Editors

Jacob Morton
Mckenzie Whalen

ARCP Editor-in-Chief

Sara Neier

ARCP Managing Editors

Elizabeth Butscher
Hanson S. Causbie

ARCP Executive Editors

Nathaniel S. Burkes
Sally Woojung Jo
Juliet May Tracy
Grace Amara Okoroafor
Allison Reading
Pedro J. Rosario Cintrón
Jeffrey Talley
Eric Tarosky
James Townsend
Daniel Whittam

Staff

Ellie Bacon
Nicole D. Ballister
Eric Richard Blosser
Mary Borchers
Lexi R. F. Boynes
Rebecca S. Brett
Josh Cape
Alexis Renee Casanas
Evan Chiacchiaro
Elijah C. Conley
Mary Conley
Noah B. Curtiss
Ben Dolder
Simone Edwards
Garett Eldred
Aaron W. Frazee
Grace H. Garver
Grace Gill
Creigh Greensmith
Naman Gupta
Leah Haynes
Jordan E. Jackson
Emily Nicole Janikowski
Elle A. Jimenez
Mariah Johson
Nghia Jones
Ariel Arnetta June
Ava Kamb
Eli Lee
Iland Leigh
Kamm G Lemay
Kachun Leung
Si Yuan Lin
Isabelle Long
Joseph J. Lorusso III
Alexis Marvel
Margaret A. McCallister
Ender McDuff
Nicolaus J. Neser
Sara Nutter
Conor S. O'Shea
Jon-Mark Overvold
Anna E.B. Primosch
Samantha Purdy
Tate Rosenblatt
Emma A. Schaechter-Santander
Johanna Seale
Shiva M. Sethi
Alexis Jori Shanes
Claire E. Shennan
Lucas A. Tanaka
Max Van Zile
Dustin Vesey
Abby West
Montserrat Zamora
Tinesha Zandamela
Katharine Zeigler
Zarah Zhao
Snow Yingzhu Zheng