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Link Rot, Legal Citation and Projects to Preserve Precedent

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 Bibliography Covering Link Rot and Related Topics

General Resources

Legal Materials


Articles covering difficulties faced by scholars, students, and other academic constituencies in working with, citing and relying on electronic resources.

  • Karen Beck, Time Has Come for Electronic Cite-Checking, The, 4 AALL SPECTRUM 26 (1999).
  • Richard A. Danner et al., Durham Statement Two Years Later: Open Access in the Law School Journal Environment, The, 103 LAW LIBR. J. 39 (2011).
  • Stephanie Davidson, Way beyond Legal Research: Understanding the Research Habits of Legal Scholars, 102 LAW LIBR. J. 561 (2010).
  • Helane E. Davis, Keeping Validity in Cite: Web Resources Cited in Select Washington Law Reviews, 2001-03, 98 LAW LIBR. J. 639 (2006).
  • Benjamin J. Keele & Michelle Pearse, How Librarians Can Help Improve Law Journal Publishing, 104 LAW LIBR. J. 383 (2012).
  • E. Dana Neacsu, Legal Scholarship and Digital Publishing, 21 LEGAL REFERENCE SERVICES QUARTERLY 105 (2002).
  • Mary Rumsey, Runaway Train: Problems of Permanence, Accessibility, and Stability in the Use of Web Sources in Law Review Citations, 94 LAW LIBR. J. 27 (2002).
  • Mary Rumsey & April Schwartz, Paper versus Electronic Sources for Law Review Cite Checking: Should Paper Be the Gold Standard, 97 LAW LIBR. J. 31 (2005).
  • Nicholas Szydlowski, A Dead Link or a Final Resting Place: Link Rot in Legal Citations, 18 AALL SPECTRUM 7 (2014).
  • Richard A. Wise et al., Do Law Reviews Need Reform: A Survey of Law Professors, Student Editors, Attorneys, and Judges, 59 LOY. L. REV. 1 (2013).


Articles address problems judges and litigants face in using citations to electronic materials.

  • Tina S. Ching, Next Generation of Legal Citations: A Survey of Internet Citations in the Opinions of the Washington Supreme Court and Washington Appellate Courts, 1999-2005, The, 9 J. APP. PRAC. & PROCESS 387 (2007).
  • Karen Eltis, Courts, Litigants and the Digital Age: Law, Ethics and Practice (Irwin Law 2012).
  • L. Jay Jackson, "Link Rot" is Degrading Legal Research and Case Cites, 99 A.B.A. J. 1 (2013).
  • Gregory Joseph, Judicial Notice of Internet Evidence, 19 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE & LAW REPORT, Mar. 12, 2014.
  • Raizel Liebler &June Liebert, Something Rotten in the State of Legal Citation: The Life Span of a United States Supreme Court Citation Containing an Internet Link (1996-2010), 15 YALE JOURNAL OF LAW & TECHNOLOGY 273 (2012).
  • Arturo Torres, Is Link Rot Destroying Stare Decisis as We Know It: The Internet-Citation Practice of the Texas Appellate Courts, 13 J. APP. PRAC. & PROCESS 269 (2012).
  • William R. Wilkerson, The Emergence of Internet Citations in U.S. Supreme Court Opinions, 27 THE JUSTICE SYSTEM JOURNAL 323 (2006).
  • Influency and The US Supreme Court as Content Marketer,
  • Internet Materials in Judicial Opinions and Orders, presented at Judicial Conference of the United States,


Articles outline some potential ongoing and future preservation solutions.

  • Benjamin J. Keele, Perma: A Tool for Addressing Link Rot in Published Scholarship, 26 INULA NOTES: INDIANA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIANS ASSOCIATION (2014).
  • Susan Lyons, Persistent Identification of Electronic Documents and the Future of Footnotes, 97 LAW LIBR. J. 681 (2005).
  • Sarah Rhodes, Breaking Down Link Rot: The Chesapeake Project Legal Information Archive's Examination of URL Stability, 102 LAW LIBR. J. 581 (2010).
  • Sarah Rhodes & Dana Neacsu, Preserving and Ensuring Long-Term Access to Digitally Born Legal Information, 18 INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY LAW 39 (2009).
  • Jeff John Roberts, A web page that lasts forever: the plan to stop "link rot" in law and science, GIGAOM (Oct. 14, 2013),
  • Caroline Young, Oh My Blawg - Who Will Save the Legal Blogs, 105 LAW LIBR. J. 493 (2013).
  • Jonathan Zittrain et al., Perma: Scoping and Addressing the Problem of Link and Reference Rot in Legal Citations, HARV. L. REV. (2014).


Articles that address the crucial nature of e-resources.

  • Ellie Margolis, Surfin' Safari - Why Competent Lawyers Should Research on the Web, 10 YALE JOURNAL OF LAW &TECHNOLOGY 82 (2007).
  • David Tennant & Laurie Seal, Judicial Ethics and the Internet: May Judges Search the Internet in Evaluating and Deciding a Case? 16 THE PROFESSIONAL LAWYER (2005).
  • Michael Whiteman, The Death of Twentieth-Century Authority, 58 UCLA L. REV. DISC. 27 (2010).

Practical Tools and Tips

Questions? Contact Leah Prescott, Associate Law Librarian for Digital Initiatives and Special Collections,

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